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中华人民共和国反间谍法 (中英文版)

发布日期:2020-07-13 13:05来源: 芜湖市外事办作者:网站管理员浏览次数:

      中华人民共和国反间谍法

      2017-07-21 12:00来源:新华社
      (2014年11月1日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议通过)

      目  录

        第一章 总则第二章 国家安全机关在反间谍工作中的职权第三章 公民和组织的义务和权利第四章 法律责任第五章 附则

      第一章 总  则

      第一条 为了防范、制止和惩治间谍行为,维护国家安全,根据宪法,制定本法。
      第二条 反间谍工作坚持中央统一领导,坚持公开工作与秘密工作相结合、专门工作与群众路线相结合、积极防御、依法惩治的原则。
      第三条 国家安全机关是反间谍工作的主管机关。
      公安、保密行政管理等其他有关部门和军队有关部门按照职责分工,密切配合,加强协调,依法做好有关工作。
      第四条 中华人民共和国公民有维护国家的安全、荣誉和利益的义务,不得有危害国家的安全、荣誉和利益的行为。
      一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体及各企业事业组织,都有防范、制止间谍行为,维护国家安全的义务。
      国家安全机关在反间谍工作中必须依靠人民的支持,动员、组织人民防范、制止危害国家安全的间谍行为。
      第五条 反间谍工作应当依法进行,尊重和保障人权,保障公民和组织的合法权益。
      第六条 境外机构、组织、个人实施或者指使、资助他人实施的,或者境内机构、组织、个人与境外机构、组织、个人相勾结实施的危害中华人民共和国国家安全的间谍行为,都必须受到法律追究。
      第七条 国家对支持、协助反间谍工作的组织和个人给予保护,对有重大贡献的给予奖励。

      第二章 国家安全机关在反间谍工作中的职权

      第八条 国家安全机关在反间谍工作中依法行使侦查、拘留、预审和执行逮捕以及法律规定的其他职权。
      第九条 国家安全机关的工作人员依法执行任务时,依照规定出示相应证件,有权查验中国公民或者境外人员的身份证明,向有关组织和人员调查、询问有关情况。
      第十条 国家安全机关的工作人员依法执行任务时,依照规定出示相应证件,可以进入有关场所、单位;根据国家有关规定,经过批准,出示相应证件,可以进入限制进入的有关地区、场所、单位,查阅或者调取有关的档案、资料、物品。
      第十一条 国家安全机关的工作人员在依法执行紧急任务的情况下,经出示相应证件,可以优先乘坐公共交通工具,遇交通阻碍时,优先通行。
      国家安全机关因反间谍工作需要,按照国家有关规定,可以优先使用或者依法征用机关、团体、企业事业组织和个人的交通工具、通信工具、场地和建筑物,必要时,可以设置相关工作场所和设备、设施,任务完成后应当及时归还或者恢复原状,并依照规定支付相应费用;造成损失的,应当补偿。
      第十二条 国家安全机关因侦察间谍行为的需要,根据国家有关规定,经过严格的批准手续,可以采取技术侦察措施。
      对依照前款规定查封、扣押的设备、设施,在危害国家安全的情形消除后,国家安全机关应当及时解除查封、扣押。
      第十三条 国家安全机关因反间谍工作需要,可以依照规定查验有关组织和个人的电子通信工具、器材等设备、设施。查验中发现存在危害国家安全情形的,国家安全机关应当责令其整改;拒绝整改或者整改后仍不符合要求的,可以予以查封、扣押。
      对依照前款规定查封、扣押的设备、设施,在危害国家安全的情形消除后,国家安全机关应当及时解除查封、扣押。
      第十四条 国家安全机关因反间谍工作需要,根据国家有关规定,可以提请海关、边防等检查机关对有关人员和资料、器材免检。有关检查机关应当予以协助。
      第十五条 国家安全机关对用于间谍行为的工具和其他财物,以及用于资助间谍行为的资金、场所、物资,经设区的市级以上国家安全机关负责人批准,可以依法查封、扣押、冻结。
      第十六条 国家安全机关根据反间谍工作需要,可以会同有关部门制定反间谍技术防范标准,指导有关部门落实反间谍技术防范措施,对存在隐患的部门,经过严格的批准手续,可以进行反间谍技术防范检查和检测。
      第十七条 国家安全机关及其工作人员在工作中,应当严格依法办事,不得超越职权、滥用职权,不得侵犯组织和个人的合法权益。
      国家安全机关及其工作人员依法履行反间谍工作职责获取的组织和个人的信息、材料,只能用于反间谍工作。对属于国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的,应当保密。
      第十八条 国家安全机关工作人员依法执行职务受法律保护。

      第三章 公民和组织的义务和权利

      第十九条 机关、团体和其他组织应当对本单位的人员进行维护国家安全的教育,动员、组织本单位的人员防范、制止间谍行为。
      第二十条 公民和组织应当为反间谍工作提供便利或者其他协助。
      因协助反间谍工作,本人或者其近亲属的人身安全面临危险的,可以向国家安全机关请求予以保护。国家安全机关应当会同有关部门依法采取保护措施。
      第二十一条 公民和组织发现间谍行为,应当及时向国家安全机关报告;向公安机关等其他国家机关、组织报告的,相关国家机关、组织应当立即移送国家安全机关处理。
      第二十二条 在国家安全机关调查了解有关间谍行为的情况、收集有关证据时,有关组织和个人应当如实提供,不得拒绝。
      第二十三条 任何公民和组织都应当保守所知悉的有关反间谍工作的国家秘密。
      第二十四条 任何个人和组织都不得非法持有属于国家秘密的文件、资料和其他物品。
      第二十五条 任何个人和组织都不得非法持有、使用间谍活动特殊需要的专用间谍器材。专用间谍器材由国务院国家安全主管部门依照国家有关规定确认。
      第二十六条 任何个人和组织对国家安全机关及其工作人员超越职权、滥用职权和其他违法行为,都有权向上级国家安全机关或者有关部门检举、控告。受理检举、控告的国家安全机关或者有关部门应当及时查清事实,负责处理,并将处理结果及时告知检举人、控告人。
      对协助国家安全机关工作或者依法检举、控告的个人和组织,任何个人和组织不得压制和打击报复。

      第四章 法律责任

      第二十七条 境外机构、组织、个人实施或者指使、资助他人实施,或者境内机构、组织、个人与境外机构、组织、个人相勾结实施间谍行为,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
      实施间谍行为,有自首或者立功表现的,可以从轻、减轻或者免除处罚;有重大立功表现的,给予奖励。
      第二十八条 在境外受胁迫或者受诱骗参加敌对组织、间谍组织,从事危害中华人民共和国国家安全的活动,及时向中华人民共和国驻外机构如实说明情况,或者入境后直接或者通过所在单位及时向国家安全机关、公安机关如实说明情况,并有悔改表现的,可以不予追究。
      第二十九条 明知他人有间谍犯罪行为,在国家安全机关向其调查有关情况、收集有关证据时,拒绝提供的,由其所在单位或者上级主管部门予以处分,或者由国家安全机关处十五日以下行政拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
      第三十条 以暴力、威胁方法阻碍国家安全机关依法执行任务的,依法追究刑事责任。
      故意阻碍国家安全机关依法执行任务,未使用暴力、威胁方法,造成严重后果的,依法追究刑事责任;情节较轻的,由国家安全机关处十五日以下行政拘留。
      第三十一条 泄露有关反间谍工作的国家秘密的,由国家安全机关处十五日以下行政拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
      第三十二条 对非法持有属于国家秘密的文件、资料和其他物品的,以及非法持有、使用专用间谍器材的,国家安全机关可以依法对其人身、物品、住处和其他有关的地方进行搜查;对其非法持有的属于国家秘密的文件、资料和其他物品,以及非法持有、使用的专用间谍器材予以没收。非法持有属于国家秘密的文件、资料和其他物品,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不构成犯罪的,由国家安全机关予以警告或者处十五日以下行政拘留。
      第三十三条 隐藏、转移、变卖、损毁国家安全机关依法查封、扣押、冻结的财物的,或者明知是间谍活动的涉案财物而窝藏、转移、收购、代为销售或者以其他方法掩饰、隐瞒的,由国家安全机关追回。构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
      第三十四条 境外人员违反本法的,可以限期离境或者驱逐出境。
      第三十五条 当事人对行政处罚决定、行政强制措施决定不服的,可以自接到决定书之日起六十日内,向作出决定的上一级机关申请复议;对复议决定不服的,可以自接到复议决定书之日起十五日内向人民法院提起诉讼。
      第三十六条 国家安全机关对依照本法查封、扣押、冻结的财物,应当妥善保管,并按照下列情形分别处理:
      (一)涉嫌犯罪的,依照刑事诉讼法的规定处理;
      (二)尚不构成犯罪,有违法事实的,对依法应当没收的予以没收,依法应当销毁的予以销毁;
      (三)没有违法事实的,或者与案件无关的,应当解除查封、扣押、冻结,并及时返还相关财物;造成损失的,应当依法赔偿。
      国家安全机关没收的财物,一律上缴国库。
      第三十七条 国家安全机关工作人员滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊,构成犯罪的,或者有非法拘禁、刑讯逼供、暴力取证、违反规定泄露国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私等行为,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

      第五章 附  则

      第三十八条 本法所称间谍行为,是指下列行为:
      (一)间谍组织及其代理人实施或者指使、资助他人实施,或者境内外机构、组织、个人与其相勾结实施的危害中华人民共和国国家安全的活动;
      (二)参加间谍组织或者接受间谍组织及其代理人的任务的;
      (三)间谍组织及其代理人以外的其他境外机构、组织、个人实施或者指使、资助他人实施,或者境内机构、组织、个人与其相勾结实施的窃取、刺探、收买或者非法提供国家秘密或者情报,或者策动、引诱、收买国家工作人员叛变的活动;
      (四)为敌人指示攻击目标的;
      (五)进行其他间谍活动的。
      第三十九条 国家安全机关、公安机关依照法律、行政法规和国家有关规定,履行防范、制止和惩治间谍行为以外的其他危害国家安全行为的职责,适用本法的有关规定。
      第四十条 本法自公布之日起施行。1993年2月22日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议通过的《中华人民共和国国家安全法》同时废止。




    Anti-Espionage Law of the People 's Republic of China

    (Adopted at the 11th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People’s Congress on November l, 2014)

    Contents

      Chapter I General ProvisionsChapter II Functions and Powers of the State Security Organs in Anti-Espionage WorkChapter III Duties and Rights of Citizens and OrganizationsChapter IV Legal LiabilityChapter V Supplementary Provisions

    Chapter I General Provisions

    Article 1 This Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China for the purpose of preventing, checking and punishing espionage conducts and safeguarding the state security.
    Article 2 The anti-espionage work shall follow the principles of adhering to unified leadership at the Central level, combining work in public with work in secret, integrating specialized work with mass-line work, engaging active defense and prevention, and imposing punishment in accordance with law.
    Article 3 The state security organs are the competent authorities in charge of anti-espionage work.
    Other departments such as the public security organs and the administrative departments for guarding secrets, as well ast he related military departments shall, based on the division of functions and powers, closely cooperate with one another and enhance coordination in order to accomplish relevant work in accordance with law.
    Article 4 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall have the duty to safeguard the security, honor and interests of the state, and must not commit any act endangering the security, honor or interests of the state.
    All state organs, armed forces, political parties, public organizations, enterprises and institutions shall have the duty to prevent and check any conducts of espionage and safeguard the security of the state.
    The state security organs must rely on the people’s support in anti-espionage work, and shall mobilize and organize the people to prevent and check any espionage conducts that endanger the security of the state.
    Article 5 In carrying out anti-espionage work, the law shall be observed, human rights shall be respected and protected, and the legitimate rights and interests of all citizens and organizations shall be protected.
    Article 6 Any espionage conducts endangering the state security of the People 's Republic of China shall be prosecuted according to law which are engaged by institutions, organizations or individuals outside the territory of the People 's Republic of China, or by others under the instigation or financial support of the aforementioned institutions, organizations and individuals, or by institutions, organizations or individuals within the territory in collusion with institutions, organizations or individuals outside the territory.
    Article 7 The state shall protect organizations and individuals that have rendered support or assistance in anti-espionage work, and reward those who have made significant contributions.

    Chapter II Functions and Powers of the State Security Organs in Anti-Espionage Work

    Article 8 The state security organs, in anti-espionage work, shall exercise the functions and powers of investigation, detention, preliminary interrogation and arrest according to law, as well as other functions and powers stipulated by law.
    Article 9 Any functionary of a state security organ, when carrying out a task according to law and upon producing the appropriate certificate pursuant to relevant provisions, shall have the right to examine the identification certificate of any Chinese citizen or any person from outside the territory of the People's Republic of China and investigate or inquire about relevant matters with any organization or individual concerned.
    Article 10 Any functionary of a state security organ, when carrying out a task according to law, may enter any site or unit of interest upon producing the appropriate certificate according to relevant provisions and, pursuant to relevant provisions of the state and with approval, may enter the restricted area, site or unit of interest upon producing the appropriate certificate; and may consult or take relevant files, materials and articles for examination.
    Article 11 Any functionary of a state security organ, when carrying out an urgent task according to law, may have the priority in taking means of public transport upon producing an appropriate certificate, and may have the privilege of way in case of a traffic block.
    As required by anti-espionage work, a state security organ may, according to relevant provisions of the state, have the priority in the use of any means of transport or communication, site and building belonging to any organ, organization, enterprise, institution or individual, or expropriate the same pursuant to law, and may set up relevant work sites, equipment and installations where it is necessary. After the task is accomplished, the state security organ shall return or restitute the aforementioned means of transport or communication, site or building in a timely manner, pay an appropriate fee according to relevant provisions and, in case of any damage or loss, make appropriate compensations therefor.
    Article 12 Where the reconnaissance of an espionage conduct requires, a state security organ may, in accordance with relevant provisions of the state and after going through strict approval procedures, employ technological means of reconnaissance.
    Article l3 Where anti-espionage work requires, a state security organ may inspect and examine, pursuant to relevant provisions, the electronic communication instruments and appliances as well as other similar equipment and installations of any organization or individual. Upon discovery of any situation endangering state security, the state security organ shall order the institution or individual under inspection and examination to make rectification, and may seal or seize the equipment or installations in question if the institution or individual refuses to do so or if the equipment or installations in question still fail to meet relevant requirements after rectification.
    After the situation endangering state security is eliminated, the state security organ shall release, in a timely manner, the equipment or installations which have been sealed or seized according to the provisions of the previous paragraph.
    Article 14 Where anti-espionage work requires, a state security organ may, in accordance with the relevant provisions17of the state, request the inspection organs such as the Customs and the frontier inspection stations to exempt relevant persons, materials and equipment from being inspected. The inspection organs concerned shall give assistance thereto.
    Article 15 Upon approval by the person in charge of a state security organ at or above the level of the city divided into districts, a state security organ may seal, seize or freeze the instruments and other property used for espionage conducts and the funds, premises, goods and materials which are used to support such conducts.
    Article 16 Where anti-espionage work requires, the state security organ may formulate, in conjunction with relevant departments, technical standards for the prevention of espionage conducts, direct relevant departments in adopting anti-espionage technical measures, and may, after going through strict approval procedures, carry out technical inspection and testing against espionage in the departments with potential hazards in this respect.
    Article 17 State security organs and their functionaries shall act strictly according to law in their work and refrain from overstepping or abusing their powers, and shall not infringe upon the legitimate rights and interests of any organization or individual.
    Information and materials of organizations and individuals which are acquired by state security organs and their functionaries during the performance of their anti-espionage duty shall be solely used for anti-espionage work, and be kept confidential if such information and materials belong to state secrets, trade secrets or individual privacy.
    Article 18 Functionaries of the state security organs shall be protected by law in their performance of duty according to law.

    Chapter III Duties and Rights of Citizens and Organizations

    Article 19 State organs, public organizations and other organizations shall educate their personnel with respect to safeguarding state security, mobilize and organize them to prevent and check espionage conducts.
    Article 20 Citizens and organizations shall provide convenience or other assistance in anti-espionage work.
    Where the personal safety of an individual or his close relatives is endangered due to his assistance in anti-espionage work, such an individual may request the state security organ to provide protection, and the state security organ shall, in conjunction with the relevant departments, take appropriate protection measures in accordance with law.
    Article 21 Any citizen or organization shall, on the discovery of any espionage conducts, promptly report it to a state security organ. If a citizen reports an espionage conduct to any other state organ or organization such as a public security organ, such state organ or organization shall transfer the case toa state security organ for handling without delay.
    Article 22 When a state security organ investigates and inquires into an espionage conduct and gathers related evidence, the organizations and individuals concerned shall faithfully provide relevant information and may not refuse to do so.
    Article 23 Any citizen or organization shall keep confidential the state secrets related to anti-espionage work that have come to his or its knowledge or possession.
    Article 24 No individual or organization may unlawfully hold any document, material or other articles that are classified as state secrets.
    Article 25 No individual or organization may unlawfully possess or use any specialized espionage equipment or devices which are exclusively used for espionage conducts. Specialized espionage equipment or devices shall be defined by the department in charge of state security under the State Council in accordance with relevant provisions of the state.
    Article 26 Any individual or organization shall have the right to report, or lodge a complaint, against a state security organ or its functionaries for overstepping or abusing the power or for any other unlawful act to the state security organ at the higher level or to other relevant departments. The state security organ at the higher level or other relevant departments shall, without delay, investigate and ascertain the facts, take the responsibility for handling the matter and inform the reporter or complainant of the results of its handling.
    No one may suppress or retaliate against any individual or organization that has assisted a state security organ in its work or that has made reports or lodged complaints according to law.

    Chapter IV Legal Liability

    Article 27 Where any institution, organization or individual outside the territory of the People 's Republic of China engages, or instigates or finances others to engage espionage conducts, or any institution, organization or individual within the territory of the People 's Republic of China engages espionage conducts in collusion with an institution, organization or individual outside the territory, which constitutes a crime, the aforementioned institution, organization or individual shall be prosecuted for criminal liability in accordance with law.
    Anyone who engages espionage conducts voluntarily surrenders himself or has performed meritorious service may be given a lighter or mitigated punishment, or be exempted from punishment; and any such person who has performed significant meritorious service may be awarded.
    Article 28 Anyone who is compelled or induced to join a hostile or espionage organization and has engaged in activities endangering the state security of the People 's Republic of China outside the territory may be exempted from prosecution if he makes a faithful and timely report about the situation to an organ of the People's Republic of China stationed abroad, or after returning to the country, makes a faithful and timely report about the situation directly, or through his unit, to a state security organ or a public security organ and demonstrates repentance.
    Article 29 Whoever is well aware of other persons' criminal conducts of espionage but refuses to provide relevant information while a state security organ investigates the situation or collects evidence from him shall be given an21administrative sanction by his unit or the competent department at a higher level, or be given a detention of not more than 15days by the state security organ; if a crime is constituted, he shall be prosecuted for criminal liability in accordance with law.
    Article 30 Whoever, by means of violence or threat, obstructs a state security organ from carrying out an assignment according to law shall be prosecuted for criminal liability in accordance with law.
    Whoever, without resorting to violence or threat, intentionally obstructs a state security organ from carrying out an assignment according to law and causes serious consequences shall be prosecuted for criminal liability in accordance with law; if the circumstances are not serious, the offender shall be given a detention of not more than 15 days by the state security organ.
    Article 31 Whoever divulges the state secrets related to anti-espionage work shall be given a detention of not more than 15 days by the state security organ; if a crime is constituted, the offender shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to law.
    Article 32 A state security organ may search the body, articles, residence and other related places of anyone who unlawfully holds documents, materials or other articles classified as state secrets or unlawfully possesses or uses equipment or materials exclusively used for espionage purposes, and may confiscate the aforementioned documents, materials and articles as well as the aforementioned equipment and materials. Anyone who unlawfully holds documents, materials or other articles which are classified as state secrets, if a crime is constituted, shall be investigated for criminal liability according to law; if a crime is not constituted, he shall be given a warning or a detention of not more than 15 days by the state security organ.
    Article 33 Where anyone conceals, transfers, sells, damages or destroys the property lawfully sealed, seized or frozen by a state security organ, or knowingly harbors, transfers, purchases, or sells for another person, the property involved in espionage activities, or covers up or hides such property by any other means, the property in question shall be recovered by the state security organ. Where a crime is constituted, the offender shall be prosecuted for criminal liability.
    Article 34 If a violator of this Law is from outside the territory of the People’s Republic of China, he may be ordered to leave the country within a specified time limit or be deported.
    Article 35 Where any party concerned is unsatisfied with a decision imposing administrative sanctions or compulsory measures thereon, it may, within 60 days from the date of receiving the decision, apply for an administrative review with the organ at the next higher level than the one that made the decision; and where the party is still unsatisfied with the decision of review, it may bring a lawsuit in a people's court within 15 days from the date of receiving the decision of review.
    Article 36 A state security organ shall properly keep the property it sealed seized or frozen according to law and shall dispose the property respectively as follows:
    (1) To dispose, in accordance with relevant provisions of the Criminal Procedure Law, the property that is suspected of being involved in a crime;
    (2) To confiscate or destroy the property that should be confiscated or destroyed in accordance with law where a crime is not constituted but the facts of violation have been ascertained;
    (3) To release the sealed, seized or frozen property and promptly return it where the facts of violation of law are not ascertained or the property in question is irrelevant to the case; and to compensate, in accordance with law, for any losses caused thereby.
    Property confiscated by the state security organs shall all be turned in to the State Treasury.
    Article 37 Any functionary of a state security organ shall be prosecuted for criminal liability in accordance with law if he abuses the power, neglects his duty or engages in malpractices for personal interests, which constitutes a crime, or if he practices unlawful detention, extorts a confession by torture, obtains evidence resorting to violence, or divulges state secrets, trade secrets or individual privacy in violation of relevant provisions, which constitutes a crime.

    Chapter V Supplementary Provisions

    Article 38 For the purposes of this Law, an espionage conduct shall refer to any of the following:
    (1) acting to endanger the Republic of China, which is state security of the People's committed by an espionage organization or its agent, or by any other person under the instigation or financial support of an espionage organization or its agent, or by an institution, organization or individual within or outside the territory of the People's Republic of China in collusion with an espionage organization or its agent;
    (2) joining an espionage organization or accepting a mission assigned by an espionage organization or its agent;
    (3) stealing, secretly gathering, buying or unlawfully providing state secrets or intelligence or inciting, luring or bribing a state functionary to turn traitor, which is committed by an institution, organization or individual outside the territory of the People's Republic of China other than an espionage organization or its agent, or by any other person under the instigation or financial support of the aforementioned institution, organization or individual, or by an institution, organization or individual within the territory of the People's Republic of China in collusion with the aforementioned institution, organization or individual;
    (4) indicating an attack target for the enemy;
    (5) engaging in any other espionage activity.
    Article 39 Where a state security organ or public securityorgan performs the duty of preventing, checking or punishing acts endangering the state security other than espionage conducts according to relevant laws, administrative regulations and state provisions, the relevant provisions of this Law shall be applicable.
    Article 40 This Law shall go into effect as of the date of promulgation. The State Security Law of the People’s Republic of China, which was adopted at the 30th Meeting of the Seventh National People's Congress on February 22, 1993, shall be annulled at the same time.